Thursday, May 21, 2020

Defining Poverty Of New Zealand Essay - 728 Words

Defining poverty in New Zealand New Zealand lacks an ‘official’ definition of poverty and internationally, is not alone in its failure to do so. However, there is in certain OECD countries, definitions that could be adjusted and refined to define poverty within a New Zealand context, and we should in the first instance, adopt Ireland’s model for that purpose. Introduction Defining poverty is a consensual and contextual process difficult to achieve from the subjective view alone as everyone has their own ideas on what characterises poverty. Objective empirical analysis is useful only if the correct markers are identified and these can still be subjective because we can arbitrarily choose which markers to focus on. Furthermore, the importance or relevance of certain social conditions and social interactions will vary across groups and sub-groups and between individuals within those groups. Also, traditional use of income as the sole measure of poverty, at least in developed countries, no longer provides a definitive answer as the focus on equality and other social values become part of the formula. If we can’t define and measure poverty, we can’t fix it. ‘Poverty, the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. Poverty is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs. In this context, the identification of poor people first requires a determination of what constitutes basic needs.’ EncyclopaediaShow MoreRelatedNorth-South Divide1613 Words   |  7 Pagescollectively as the North, and the poorer  developing countries  (least developed countries), or the South.[1]  Although most nations comprising the North are in fact located in the  Northern Hemisphere  (with the notable exceptions of  Australia  and  New Zealand), the divide is not wholly defined by  geography. The North is home to four out of five permanent members of the  United Nations Security Council  and all members of the  G8. The North mostly covers  the West  and the  First World, with much of the  SecondRead MoreMy Worldview On Helping Others And Poverty 956 Words   |  4 PagesThis paper discusses who I am and how I have become the person I am today through different cultural experiences and my worldview on helping others and poverty. What makes me difference from other people, why Social Work interests me and the criteria to be a ‘fit and proper’ Social Worker. The word ‘culture’ can mean numerous things to different people around the world. Most of us are who we are today because of the different ‘cultures’ we have been exposed to over the years through, friends, familyRead MoreWho I Am As An Individual984 Words   |  4 PagesI can remember. In saying that, I also knew I was straight and liked boys since I was fourteen. Furthermore, gender and sexual identity is not the only way of knowing my who I am, but also my Australian background. Even though I have lived in New Zealand for six years, being an Australian is something I am proud off and something I will always be. Australians have their own culture and can be patriotic and this is something I grow up with and I am proud of it. In addition, there are things thatRead MoreSocial Justice is Vital in Relationship to Social Policy705 Words   |  3 Pagesexample in New Zealand is of a successful community approach towards marginalized young people who were being excluded or refused to engage in the community scheme, which was resulting in anti-social behavior. Encouragements of this group to involve themselves in finding a resolution to this issue lead to constructive contributions to the community (Alston, 2009). To define a profession can sometimes mean placing limits or restrictions on it. It is difficult to find a universal way of defining both communityRead MoreThe Common Health Inequalities Of New Zealand Essay1744 Words   |  7 Pagescommon health inequalities that most Maoris and non-maoris have experienced while looking for healthcare services, and on how such healthcare inequalities can be reduced. New Zealand has a rich and fascinating unique history, depicting its early settlers from Maoris until the colonization of the British Crown. The discovery of New Zealand comes a long way back from more than 700 years ago. Learning ones history is like seeing the foundation of the past and how it actually get influenced by a lot of factorsRead MoreThe Northern Wars Of Aotearoa Essay1069 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. It will also be defining and giving understanding of the meaning of colonisation and the effects on the MÄ ori people. This paper concludes with the impact of the Northern wars on MÄ ori wellbeing and health in 1843 and the present. The definition of colonisation is â€Å"the forming of a settlement or colony by a group of people who seek to take control of territories or countries†. It usually involves large-scale immigration of people to a new location and the expansionRead MoreEssay on Determination of HDI1278 Words   |  6 Pagesand New Zealand. The HDI value of a country shows the distance that it has already traveled to the maximum value of 1.0 and it also shows comparisons with other countries. The difference between the value achieved by a country and the maximum possible value shows how far the country has to reach. For example Ethiopia has to travel further (0.708) to reach up to Canada, compared to France which has a difference of 0.014 HDI. (b) Examine the Problems of Defining DevelopmentRead MoreHomelessness in the United States Essay1461 Words   |  6 Pagespeople, it just doesn’t make sense. For instance Alfredzine Black of the YWCA in Marion, Indiana says, â€Å"I don’t understand why we have so much poverty in the richest country in the world!† Citizens of the United States have a hard time defining and identifying poverty in their communities, so the country should crate a consistent and accurate measure of poverty. Also, urban growth is leaving people behind and causing unnecessary evictions that lead to homelessness, and this problem can be solved byRead MoreHealth Promotion Is A Discipline And A Practice Essay2288 Words   |  10 PagesPromotion 527872 29/08/14 Word Count: 1979 In New Zealand, Health Promotion is a discipline and a practice. Generic health promotion encompassing all cultures focuses on empowering individuals and communities to find a balanced life and a sense of wellbeing by taking control of their own health and by taking action in the community to promote and improve healthy lifestyles (Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand, 2014). MÄ ori Health Promotion shares the same defining characteristics as health promotion howeverRead MorePolitical Branding Of The Green Party Essay3339 Words   |  14 PagesPolitical Branding of the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand Goals The Green party had a goal for the campaigns of 2011 and 2014 to utilise a moderate overtone in their branding. The party sought to be more independent from the labour party, in order to gain more territory from the opposition. The focus was to make sure voters would see green policy applied, regardless of whichever major party won power. The Green party focus was to be seen as a party that would have the ability to influence government

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Planning Phase Of A Annual Expectation - 818 Words

Plan The planning phase to accomplish the goals is to organize workshops, this will allow the group or individual to focus on their important issues. These workshops can place the followers and the leaders on the right track, and engaging in these workshop activities can even improve or life, the morale and restore a commitment to the groups and the organization. The timeline would be set to a yearly expectation, but will be available to everyone year around (Responsible Conduct in Research Mentoring, n.d.). Plan and organize leadership groups to continue their ongoing leadership developments; this activity allows leaders to listen to the other leaders thinking and ideas. The meeting will discuss the experiences that we as leaders have encountered since maybe the last session, expressing the rewards and non-rewards from the experience. Peer leadership groups would have a timeline of once a month or every two-week gathering (Research Mentoring, n.d.). Plan and organize a group activity where leaders learn to support one another’s leadership; helping them refocus and to keep going. The event will discuss ways to empower and motivate leaders to their followers or each other; this activity can be done by videos, books, group talks, or a guest speaker. The time lines for this event can be set on a monthly basis. Organize and plan a conference(s), where there is a guest speaker or a counselor that speaks about influencing others, improving integrity, or improving communication.Show MoreRelatedPerformance Management System At My Organization Essay1653 Words   |  7 PagesI would advise management at my current organization to improve our performance management system. A performance management system should consist of planning, monitoring, reviewing and evaluating (Hrcouncil.ca, 2015). During the planning phase management should identify, clarify and agree upon expectations of the employee. Also, in this phase management needs to determine how results will be measured, agree on the monitoring process and document the plan for performance management. FurthermoreRead MoreStrategic Management For Competitive Advantage1132 Words   |  5 Pagesharsh and competitive market. This is the reason why most of the firms are seeking the help of strategists to help the formulate policies that will ensure that they give other businesses a run for their money. Strategy ranges from technicalities to planning issues. Strategic management can visibly be seen in some top companies or complex multinational corporations. Explanation of the Issues The article explores some very critical issues. The first issue is the source of exceptional entrepreneurialRead MoreBusiness System Planning For Indian Railways For The Economic Health Of The Country1436 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness system planning focuses on data and processes. It is generic in its application, meaning that products, as well as CENTRAL FOR RAILWAY INFORMATION SYSTEM can benefit from its use. Indian Railways uses BSP when they want a new way to view the organization and determine the information needs in order to build CRIS. This process is very comprehensive, therefore it is often time consuming and expensive. BSP defines the information architecture for IR. Back ground: An efficient planning document isRead MoreChange Analysis Vision802 Words   |  4 PagesBy Abayomi Oluwole Submitted to Dr. Susan Orr on November 20, 2011 Requirement for Course Project Part 1 Executive Summary This thesis formulates a cost estimate and schedule for organizing a musical concert and recording to complement an annual festival which has attracted a global recognition as well and served as an avenue to unify different cultures and backgrounds; using music as a tool to create diversities in genres of music while exposing the Northern America to the styles of otherRead MoreStrategy And Performance Management At Dsm1231 Words   |  5 PagesStrategy and Performance Management at DSM Performance management is the process of planning work assignments, setting expectations, monitoring processes, rating performance, and rewarding performance. Performance management systems are used by organizations to identify, measure, and develop the performance of individuals and teams. The goal of an effective performance management system is to strategically align employee performance with company goals and objectives (Smither London, 2009). InRead MoreBudget Planning And Control Management980 Words   |  4 PagesBudget Planning and Control According to our text a budget is a formal written statement of management’s plans for a specified future time period, expressed in financial terms (Wiley, 2013). An effective budget gives a company command and control over financial resources. It helps a company to plan and achieve their strategic and organizational goals. There are many reasons for a company to prepareRead MoreA Report On Tester Widget Inc. Performance Management1605 Words   |  7 PagesWidget Inc.’s performance management system mirrors Proverbs 3:27 â€Å"Do not withhold good for those whom it is due, when it is in your power to act.† (New International Version). Successful performance management requires commitment to performance planning, measurement and management practices. Devotion of time and effort throughout the performance management system will ensure program success. Tester Widget Inc. performance management has three responsibility levels of responsibilities: a. ManagementRead MoreEvaluation Of A Strategic Business Plan946 Words   |  4 PagesA strategic business plan follows a structured process which defines the purpose and goals of the company, and then adds the actions necessary to reach those goals. Quality planning will provide more recognition and commitment to the quality effort. Quality Council: The group which will develop guidelines, measure progress and assist with implementation of the quality objectives. The Quality Council is responsible for the growth, control, and effectiveness of total quality. Quality Policies:Read MoreEvaluation Of A Company s Plans For A Specified Future Time Period782 Words   |  4 Pagesbenchmarks against which to judge success or failure in reaching goals and facilitates timely corrective measures. Budgeting forms the baseline for a company s future performance. Managers create the budget anticipating financial conditions and market expectations for future periods. These managers calculate revenues and expenses for the period being budgeted. When the period reflected in the budget arrives, the managers compare actual expenses to the budget numbers and evaluate the department s performanceRead MoreThe Role Of Performance Management For The Achievement Of Organizational Goals1747 Words   |  7 Pagesthat are set by an employee, along with his input to the organization. A.C.2.1 There are various stages and expectations involved in the implementation of a performance management cycle. Furthermore, phases like planning, performing, and reviewing are vital for any performance management activity. The PM cycle includes planning, monitoring, developing, rating, and rewarding. Planning all the work well before the deadline is paramount to the success of this function, and secondly we have to monitor

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Elderly Old People - 1483 Words

The elderly. Old people. Senior citizens. These are all three different ways to represent one group of human beings. A younger, more naive version of myself would have viewed these people as grumpy, sedentary, helpless, or narrow-minded. The list goes on. It may come across that I have something against old folk, but I do not; that is not the point. The point is that I was generalizing an entire group of people based on preconceptions were psychologically embedded in me from fifteen years’ worth of external influences. However, my experiences with Mr. Nathan Glasser, who was a resident at Meadow Lakes Senior Center, opened my eyes to the role of stereotypes and their effects on a human being. This ingrained discrimination against the†¦show more content†¦Some of these preconceptions about the elderly come from what America values: youth, beauty, and vitality. In this society, the old folk do not seem to fit any of these categories, so people consider them to be unheal thy in order to put a larger distance between themselves and ageing. The creation of this distance separates oneself from death in a sense. For me, this discrimination against the elderly arises mainly from the fear that I will somehow do something wrong and cause the old man or woman to become furious. I was also very paranoid that the senior citizen would require serious medical attention, and I would not be able to get it in time. These people seem so helpless, and I can only do so much. However, I wasn’t alone in my views on the elderly; research shows that age discrimination has been steadily increasing since the 1990s due to the rise of the media. I had only just begun to volunteer at Meadow Lakes, and I was already forced to have one-on-one interaction with old people. How was I supposed to act in front of them? The only elderly people that I associate with are my grandparents, so how would I ever converse with someone I barely knew? This wasn’t like making friends at school; it was basically Greek to me. Even worse, the woman who worked here, Erin, let me off with a warning about Mr. Glasser before I even entered the room. She explained that he was very

Family Interventions During The Child Welfare - 1184 Words

As my group was one of the two child welfare groups, we opted to have the social worker be employed by the Department of Social Services. The family consisted of George and Mallory Smith, a Caucasian couple in their mid-thirties looking to adopt. As they were unable to conceive, they were seeking to adopt a Caucasian infant to round out their family. For the intervention phase, there were two main goals for the session. The first was to inform Mr. and Mrs. Smith that the Department of Social Services (DSS) had found a baby boy, Brian, who would be a possible match for their family. The second was to update them on where they were in the adoption process and to enlighten them on what to expect in the following months. In order to do this†¦show more content†¦Referring to the North Carolina Kids Adoptions and Foster Care Network, Child Welfare Information Gateway, Adopt Us Kids, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, and other websites to familiarize mysel f with the process of adoption. Amber Whitley also sent information she had obtained in one of her classes; the worksheets included information pertaining to the rights of adoptive parents, the forms prospective parents are required to fill out, and the information that should be explained during meetings with families. I had also emailed friends from my former church to ask them about their experiences when they were adopting their children. However, they did not respond before our group filmed out role play. Overall, I believe I did a decent job on my first family role play. As previously mentioned, the two goals of the session were to remind Mr. and Mrs. Smith where they were in the adoption process and to inform them that DSS had found a child believed to be a good fit for them. During the five minutes we met, I was able to explain to the Smiths what was already completed and what the next steps would be. I also informed them that baby Brian was selected by DSS to become the newest member of the Smith family. My body language predominantly demonstrated nonpossessive warmth. Warmth is the result when a social worker exhibits â€Å"acceptance, understanding, and interest in client well-being to make them feel safe† despite their

A Discussion of Control Infection in Healthcare Free Essays

string(172) " settings it has been revealed that in one year of tudies found in hospitals with an infection control team were more likely to reduced the incidence of HAIs by up to 33%\." Introduction Control infections have become more high profile than ever before and have seen the prevention and control during the early years of the twenty-first century. Infection is incontrollable and inevitably devastating, it is a painful fact of life, which is the cause of enormous health problems and the chief cause of death. Infection control is essential in all general care settings in which patients receive health and social care and this will protect the healthcare workers, patients and visitor from hazards and risks. We will write a custom essay sample on A Discussion of Control Infection in Healthcare or any similar topic only for you Order Now This research concentrates predominantly on infection control in healthcare settings, including the policy of infection prevention related to health and safety policy in the UK for both hospitals and communities under Hygiene Code of Practice in 2006 and the policies and procedures through the prevention and control, which are related to the guidance of infection under the Health and Social Care Act 2008, in order minimise the prevalence of infection and to protect the health and safety of both healthcare workers and patient (Department of Health, 2006). In addition, this research contains several issues of risk of spreading infections in healthcare environment and the facilities. Moreover, this research will not disclose or breach any sensitive and confidential information under the Confidentiality Act 2008 (NMC, 2008). Searching the literature A methodical search was conducted using the following systematic which is applicable to the databases, including Medline, CINAHL and PubMed which were searched by using the words â€Å"control infection’ cross-referenced with â€Å"hospital† with 36,000 data results. In addition, several databases were used to compare the changes of ratio from 2002 to 2012. However, several results were not included due to lack of evidence and being non-published. In addition, the university library website was used in order to collect adequate information related to infection by setting on engine the words infection control cross-referenced statistic†, which gives the hits of 1300 journals and research articles. The articles were considered eligible if reviewed by a reliable publisher, including Oxford journal and BJI. These journals and research articles were reported as an original research, in hich a researcher examined the relationship between the public and the health care setting and these used to review the previous report to collect the updated data. However, more than 50 data were excluded due to inadequate evidence and lack of information related to infection control. Moreover, the majority research was conducted under eligible originations where successfully collected all the relevant data which related to infection control, including Parliamentary, Department of Health, Health Protection Agency and National Audit Office. These organisations were used to identify and review the implication between the statistics of infection and health providers, such as the infection control professionals. These databases were developed to standardise the protocols for classification and identification of infection prevalence, which have been widely adopted for researchers throughout the world. In addition, this research used altered books to provide information and evidence in order to support the data that have been undertaken from different publisher. The Royal Marsden Hospital Manual Clinical Nursing Procedures (2011) and Infection Prevention Control (2007), books contained information regarding the principles of infection control. Main Body Florence Nightingale is perhaps the first nurse on record to acknowledge the importance of infection control and she initiated the infection control protocols through gathering information and demonstrates the reduction of mortality of infection (Perry 2007). Florence Nightingale noted that during the Crimean War more patients were dying from infections than from certain injuries. However, Quan (2006) stated that, Florence Nightingale did not believe in the presence of microorganism, she found that putting together an ill patient in one area with inadequate space, ventilation and light contributed to the spread of infections. Dougherty Lister (2011) highlighted that, people who are in hospital or receiving healthcare elsewhere have an increased vulnerability to infection, due to the fact that being in a hospital puts patients in closer proximity to other people with infection conditions. According to the Kings Fund (2012), stated that one of the major concerns of patients and the public are he result of high rates of healthcare-associated infections across the NHS. In addition, healthcare-associated infections are infections that are acquired across hospital and other health care environment, including community and hospital, or due to result of a health care intervention and procedure. According to the Department of Health (2004), it stated that Healthcare A ssociated Infection (HCAI) is a fatal problem of NHS There are 300,000 patients every year developing HAIs and it is estimated that during a patient’s duration stay in the UK hospital, around 1 in 10 patients can pick up an infection. The National Audit Of? ce (2006) estimates that HAIs contributes to the death of around 5,000 patients each year and costs the NHS up to ? 1 billion per year in the UK. According to the Parliament (2009), it highlights that HAIs, is a consequence of infections, which are acquired from a patient’s treatment by a healthcare worker during the course of their duties. These are often identified in care setting, but can also be associated with medical care delivered in a community. HAIs begins from micro-organisms which a patient carries safely on skin or body and eventually this will become a problem when the micro-organisms have a prospect to breech the body’s defences as a result, for example, intravenous devices, catheterisation and open wound (Dougherty Lister, 2011). Furthermore, the Department of Health (2004), has found that infected patients are around 7 times more likely to die in hospital than uninfected patients. The mortality rate of patients in the UK each year is estimated to be around 5, 000 as a direct result of HAIs, which is one of the causes of another 15,000 deaths. Parliament (2011) the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections, which was conducted in 2006 in hospitals in England 8. 2% Moreover, according to Doebbeling et al (2012) who conducted a research to identify commonly cited programmes absorbed throughout a wide variety of HAIs projects and hospital settings it has been revealed that in one year of tudies found in hospitals with an infection control team were more likely to reduced the incidence of HAIs by up to 33%. You read "A Discussion of Control Infection in Healthcare" in category "Papers" This research proved by Gamage et al (2012) through conducting further studies in all healthcare providers with infection control team in hospital, which eventually reported almost half per cent in the reduction of the prevalence rate of HAIs from 10. 5% to 5. 6%. However, the s urvey has revealed found that healthcare provider with no infection control programme has been persistently increasing the prevalence rate in HAIs of up to 18%. On the contrary, the Nursing and Midwifery Council’s Code of Professional Conduct (2002) argues that nurses are accountability to act as an advocate to prevent HAIs. This statement supported by the NMC Code of Professional and Conduct (2004), highlighted that, nurses must act in order to isolate and minimise risk of patients and it should not regularly defendable to infection control team, which also reinforced by the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 places a duty on healthcare providers to avoid the risk of infections if technically as possible (Jeanes, 2005). Dougherty Lister (2004) stressed that, the standard of care, which set by senior staff often misled by healthcare workers, including the policy and procedure of infection control, such the Personal Protective Equipment Regulations Act 1992 (PPE). This is supported by Atkins (2001), that some of the staff did not have enough time to attend mandatory training for infection control, which shows negative impact of unawareness for infection control protocols and procedures, which eventually cause of poor level of care, such as lack of hygiene, which lead to HAIs. However, Perry (2007) argued that lack of standard of care is often not the cause of HAIs, due to the fact, that before the admission of most patients to hospital have already been acquired infections. This statement supported by NHS (2006), before patients decided to be admitted to hospital, the symptoms of infection have already occurred and in this case the health care provider should not be criticised for the increasing number of HAIs. According to the report of National Audit Office (2008), there are 79% of nfection control programme in NHS Trust, which mostly complied to the measurement of effectiveness of infection control, such as standards setting and audit. However, only 11% was formally approved for the infection control programme that may reduce the programme’s authority within several NHS Trusts. In addition, stated, 66 % is the required data of infection that needs to be collected, unfortunately, due to lack of computer software and hardware, only 27% was calcula ted the rates of infection. In this case, 60% of infection control teams considered being unsatisfied with the support of NHS Trust due to inadequate clerical support, which may affect the performance in improving infection control (National Audit Office, 2011). In addition, Kings Fund (2012), the impact of large-scale cuts to the NHS has been widely reported and discussed in which the healthcare providers are concerned with the increasing incidence of HAIs in the UK. According to a latest survey for GPs and doctors in hospital, which was conducted in 2011, the report found that due to large-scale cuts by the government, the incidence of HAIs will be possibly increase in 2012 and it can have negative impact on healthcare providers . The survey found that, 79% of the 664 health workers, who participated in the survey, stated that it could be more challenging to tackle the prevalence of HAIs, due to a reduction of support of occupational health services and this eventually affects fewer patients getting effective care that is needed to prevent HAIs (National Audit Office, 2011). According to the Health Protection Agency (2008), highlighted that the department of commission in 2006 conducted the following year survey and found that 75, 694 patients were surveyed within acute care hospitals in the UK and 5,743 had HAIs, which gives a prevalence rate of 7. 95%. However, in the national survey, which was conducted in 2005, the reports found that the prevalence rate of HAIs was 8%, the statement shows that the prevalence rate of HAIs in 2005 was slightly higher with 0. % compared to 2006 survey (Health Protection Agency, 2005). Ultimately, Parliament (2006) found that the most common site of HAIs were Urinary tract infections with 23. 2%, Lower respiratory tract infections with 22. 9%; Surgical site infections 10. 7%; Bloodstream infections (Bacteraemia) 6. 2%; Skin and soft tissue infections 9. 6%; Other 27. 4%. It clearly shows in the report by Parliament 2006, that the highest rate of HAIs was urinary tract infections with up to 23. %. This report supported by National Healthcare Safety Network (2011) states that urinary tract infection (UTIs) are the most common factor of HAIs and most patients who have acquired urinary tract infection in the hospital approximately 75% are linked with urinary catheter, which is a tube inserted into a bladder through the urethra to drain the urine. The prevalence rate of patients who receive urinary catheters during the duration of stay in hospital is between 15-25%. Charlett et. al. (2009) stated that, long-term catheterisation is frequently used for older patient and others for management options, where different treatments for bladder dysfunction are unsuitable or ineffective . In the UK, a district nurse’s caseload for the long-term catheterisation has been estimated to be around 4% and the catheterised patients prevalence in nursing homes is approximately 9% and possibly up to 40% in some areas (Health Protection Agency,2008), Moreover, Getliffe and Newton (2006) carried a sample of research of small representatives of patients’ records from nursing homes, hospitals and district nurses in which 3 PCTs was undertaken. The survey of CAUTIs resulted in 50% response rate from both the nursing homes and the hospitals 57% and 62. 5 respectively but only 6. 5% from the district nurses, due to problems in distribution of questionnaires to some district nurses. The results found that up to 8. % respondents in the community and hospitals considered that the continuation of urinary catheterisation is used management option for older patient to prevent bladder dysfunction. On the contrary, a recent research which was carried out Badoz et al (2007) found that the studies of 4010 older patients (65 years old) living in both hospitals and the community in 11 European countries and the prevalence reported of indwelling catheter use was 5. % (range 0-23%) and the result found that, the risk of CAUTIs infections was 6. 5 times greater and catheterised patients were more likely to die within a year than those for patients non-catheterised Furthermore, the majority of existing surveillance on CAUTIs has been conducted in acute care settings, where usually the health of the patient is already compromised by co-morbidities, due to a long period of insertion of the urinary catheter. The study revealed that in primary and community care setting, the prevalence rate of CAUTIs and other healthcare-associated infections are significantly lower (Department of Health, 2003). However, Badoz et al (2007) specified that, catheterisation is linked with evident risks, which is the most common cause of CAUTIs and CAUTIs are commonly documented as a major source of HAIs in the UK and frequency of catheter use makes substantial overall morbidity for patients and a cost to the NHS. This statement is reinforced by Pellowe (2009), that the recent debate is fuelled due to the fact that patient use catheter is associated with high morbidity of CAUTIs, which accounts for 80% of HAIs. On the other hand, Addison and Foxley (2008) stated that, CAUTIs are frequently seen as the acceptable and tolerable cause of urinary catheterisation carried out for a range of purposes, such as instillation of drugs and intractable incontinence. On the contrary, urinary catheter use is linked with a variety of adverse effects, involving death (Pellowe, 2009). This supported by Nicolle (2008) stated that, the two most important solutions in order to prevent CAUTIs are not to use a catheter and if a catheter is needed to minimise the period of use, catheter must be inserted only when there are acceptable symptoms and removed as soon as they are no longer indicated and CAUTIs perchance evaded for some male patient through using external condom catheter. The study revealed that this occurred for 28% of catheterised patients. Furthermore, the majority of existing surveillance was conducted in primary and community care settings; the prevalence rate of CAUTIs is significantly lower (Department of Health, 2003. In recent studies of 4010 older patients (65 years old) living in the community, the prevalence reported of indwelling catheter use was 5. 4% (range 0-23%) and the result found that, the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infections was 6. 5 times greater and catheterised patients were more likely to die within a year than those for patients with non-catheterised (Getliffe Newton, 2006). On the contrary, according to the RCN (2008) found that around 22% of healthcare workers were not aware and uncertain the role of guidelines for the prevention of CAUTIs of several healthcare providers. This is supported by Pellowe (2009) that, the reasons of an increasing prevalence of CAUTIs in hospital and community is due to relatives of patient that is lack of knowledge about infections and those part-time health workers who do not undertake with mandatory training which is mandated by the Health and Social Care Act 2008 that is came into force in April 2009. The Health Protection Scotland (2009) urinary catheterisation is a routine procedure regularly carried out by qualified nurses, however, several numbers of health workers are not aware of the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infections which related to the procedure and less likely to meet the necessities in performing catheterisation, due to the fact, that some healthcare workers are skill deficiency and lack of expertise (Bissett, 2005). This supported by Humphries (2011) that reports have repeatedly shown that several healthcare workers who do not perform hand hygiene before and after performing nursing task is one of the major reasons of the increasing number of CAUTIs. In this case, health workers and patients can leave as many as 1,000 colony-forming units of Klebsiella species on hands more likely to acquire gram-negative bacilli and staphylococcous aureus, which are reported causes of HAIs (Pellowe, 2004). On the contrary, Hadaway (2009) stated that, lifting a patient and touching anything in a patient’s room before performing certain nurses tasks, even after performing hand hygiene is unavoidable, due to the fact, that these are the daily routines of a healthcare workers role in order to ensure the health and safety of a patient. National Hand Hygiene NHS Campaign (2007), defines hand hygiene, as â€Å" the entrance door to better infection control and safer patient care†. Hand hygiene techniques have been implemented for many years into healthcare workers daily routine, the NHS have been evaluated on the proper technique to wash hands after being in close contact with patients or after performing certain treatments with patients. Performing hand hygiene thoroughly will certainly be beneficial for both healthcare workers and patients to prevent risk in HAIs (Wendt, 2004). According to Pratt et al, (2007), stated that, existing evidence-based strategies determine that in outbreak settings, contaminated hands of both healthcare workers and patient’s visitors are responsible for transmitting infections and that effective hand decontamination can significantly diminish HAIs rates in high-risk areas, such as operating theatre. Furthermore, Pessoa Silva (2004) highlighted that studies revealed of epidemiological evidence determine that hand-mediated transmission is recognised as the most contributing element the present infection risks to hospital in-patients. This statement reinforced by Pratt et al, (2007), that hand decontamination before and after contact with patients is essential in order to prevent transmission of germs. In addition, according to the Department of Health (2006), the NHS Code of Practice on the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infection, which came into force in October 2006, was established to support health care providers in the UK in order to plan and implement policies for HAIs. These include the criteria by which healthcare providers and managers of NHS ensure patients must perform hand hygiene for clean environment in order to keep the risk of HAIs as low as possible. According to Pittet (2002), the importance of adherence to the guidance of hand hygiene will certainly provide an outline of the effects and aspects that impact on the hand hygiene compliance, which emphasised the national and international guidelines. Furthermore, the issue regarding hand hygiene was addressed in excellence principles for hospital cleanliness, which has developed by the Infection Control Nurses Association and the Association of Domestic Mangers (NHS, 2004). According to Wendt, C. et al (2004) stated that patients are more likely to put at risk and increase the chance for developing HAIs once informal healthcare workers in contact with patient are not performing hand hygiene properly. It is essential that hands must be decontaminated before every period of care, which includes direct interaction with patients’ food or skin and in order to minimize cross contamination of the healthcare environment (Boyce and Pittet, 2002). However, healthcare workers should not always be responsible for the increasing numbers in spreading HAIs, due to the number of patients admitted in the hospital who have already acquired infections and healthcare workers have no time to assess the patient, due to short staffing (McGuckin, 2004). This is supported by the RCN, Chief Executive General Secretary Dr Peter Carter, stated that the outcome of cutting staff numbers by up to a quarter and terminating almost third of nursing jobs will certainly have a deep and possibly dangerous impact on patient health and safety (RCN, 2011). Moreover, El-Masri and Oldfield (2012) stated that healthcare workers are aware of the policy and procedure of hand hygiene and it should be performed before and after contact with patients and the truth of the matter, is nurses and doctors have more behaviour problem than a knowledge problem. Furthermore, Erasmus et al (2010) conducted a research of hand hygiene behaviour to explore the practicality and effects of hand hygiene behaviour of nurses, research design 17 nurses which is equivalent to 25% were invited to participate. The nurses had been observed for 3 weeks intervention for hand hygiene behaviour and the result found only 10% of 25% of nurses had performed hand hygiene, which is far too low. This research supported by Creedon (2008) explores healthcare workers’ compliance with behaviour hand hygiene in four acute care hospitals in Ireland and the result revealed that the highest non-compliance by behaviour is the Doctors and medical students at 41% of indications, which was followed by nurses and student nurses at 28%. However, healthcare workers are aware of recommendations concerning hand hygiene, but education and knowledge do not in themselves motivate HHB (McGuckin et al, 2004). In recent years, hand washing with water and soap had been considered as the right amount of personal hygiene; however, the evidence concerning the hand washing and the spread of illness has only been proven in the last 20years (Kumperus, 2010). According to Ignaz Semmelweis and Oliver Wendell Holmes the mid-1800s, found that HAIs, is known to be caused by infectious agents, which are transmitted through hands (Cole, 2007). It was acknowledged healthcare providers the important measure of hand hygiene, which can significantly lower the danger of disease, in particular among vulnerable children in the UK (Trick, 2008). On the contrary, frequency hand hygiene can increase skin dehydration and replace the altered or depleted skin lipids that contribute to the barrier function of normal skin Several studies found that more than 30 times of regular hand hygiene can cause skin damage and irritation (Jenner et al, 2006). Moreover, according to Giuliano et al (2012) stated that alcohol gel hand rubs are more effective to prevent the transmission of potential pathogens from health worker’s hands to patients than hand washing with plain or anti-microbial soap. This statement argued by McGuckin et al (2004) that hand rubs gel is only used as a hand cleaner in some circumstances but washing hand with ati-microbial soap and water is important, especially if your hands are visibly contaminated with blood or body fluids and hand washing techniques will certainly have certainly reduced the contamination rates significantly. Conclusion Healthcare-associated infection remains a problem for the community, hospitals and other healthcare providers. The factors, which have continue to drive, the concerning growth in HAIs are numerous but well known. Particularly with patients, which heightens their susceptibility and vulnerability to HCAIs through weakened immunity. In addition, the cost of healthcare-associated infections in the UK is high which is around ? 1 billion per year. The involvement of healthcare workers in assessing the cost of infection and prevention control programmes will certainly reduce the increasing number of HCAs, which can be benefited in NHS and major savings can be achieved. In addition, the healthcare workers must have clear understanding of the latest infection and prevention control recommendations, which healthcare worker’s advocacy and participation in team efforts can play a vigorous role in preventing the increasing number of HCAIs in patients. The routine data collection of the CAUTIs should be more standardised to determine the scale of the risk associated with CAUTIs, in oder to develop the longitudinal database of catheterised patients and to provide essential data which infection control initiatives in hospital and community care can be evaluated and major obstacles will certainly strengthen epidemiological analysis of impact and risk of CAUTIs. The healthcare workers should have adhered to and shown more positive intentions to comply with hand hygiene guidelines and procedures. Healthcare workers should need to be educated regarding the awareness of skin damage and the value of regular, frequent use of hand hygiene. Hospital trusts and community care should have had procedures and delivered board with agreement that infection and prevention control is the responsibility of all healthcare workers and should have complied with the Code of Practice and should followed with good infection control practice for performance objectives. References Addison, R. , Foxley, S. , 2008. Role in Urinary Catheter Management. London: Blackwell Publishing ltd. Atkins, C. , Greenwood, N. Habibi, R. , Mackenzie, A. , 2011. General practitioners, primary care and support for carers in England. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Badoz M. , Berntrand X. , Crouzet, J. , Husson, D. ,2007 Control of the duration of urinary catheterization: impact on catheter-associated urinary tract infection, Journal of Hospital Infection, 67(3), pp. 253-275. Bissett, L. , 2005. Reducing the risk of c atheter urinary tract infection. Nursing Times. 22 March 101(12) p. 64 Boyce. M. , Pittet, D. , 2002. Research: The impact of wearing gloves on adherence to hand hygience policy. Nursing Times, 103(38), pp 46–48. Charlett, A. , Pearson, A. , Wilson J. , 2009 Pitfalls in the comparison of the country prevalence of healthcare-associated infections. Hospital Infection Journal, 13 January, 69 (3) pp. 23-48 Creedon, A. , 2008. Hand hygiene compliance: exploring variations in practice between hospitals. Nursing Times, 104(49), pp. 32–35. Cole, M. , 2007. Nurses take a pragmatic approach to hand hygiene. Nursing Times. 103(3), pp. 32-33. Department of Health, 2003. Surveillance of Healthcare-Associated Infections. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 April 2012]. Department of Health, 2004. Audit tools for monitoring infection control standards 2004. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 14 March 2012] Department of Health, 2006. Infection Control Nurses Association. [online] Available at:http://www. dh. gov. uk/en/statistics/Policy [Accessed on 14 March 2012]. Doebbeling, B. , Flanagan, M. , Hoke, S. , Welsh, C. , 2012. Reducing healthcare-associated infections; Lessons learned from a national collaborative of regional HAI programs. American Journal of Infection Control. [e-journal] 40 (1) pp29-34, Available through: CINAHL [Accessed on 25 April 2012]. Dougherty, L. , Lister, S. , 2011. The Royal Marsden Hospital Manual Clinical Nursing Procedures. 8th edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell El-Masri, M. , Oldfield, M. , 2012. Exploring the influence of enforcing infection control directives on the risk of developing healthcare-associated infections in the intensive care unit. Journal of Hospital Infection. 891), pp26-21. Erasmus, V. , Kumperus H. , Oenema, F. , richardus, C. , 2010. Improving hand hygiene behaviour of nurses using action planning: a pilot study in the intensive care unit and surgical ward, Journal of Hospital Infection, 76(2), pp. 161-164. Gamage, B. , Grant, J. , Schall, S. , 2012. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long–term care facilities in British Columbia. American Journal of Infection Control. [e-journal 40 (2) pp150-154, Available through: CINAHL. [Accessed 25 April 2012]. Getliffe, K. , Newton, T. , 2006. Catheter-Associated urinary tract infection in primary and community health care. Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2012] Hadaway, L. , 2009. Preventing Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections. Nursing Times, 25 September, 2(5), pp 50-55. Health Protection Agency, 2005. Continous Optimism as HAIs Rates. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 April 2012] Health Protection Agency, 2008. Healthcare-Associated Infections. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 April 2012] Humphries (2011), Preventing and Controlling the Risk of Post-operative Surgical-site Infections. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 April 2012] Jeanes, A. , 2005. Putting on Gloves. Nursing Times, 19 July, 101 (29) p28. Loveday, P. , Pellowe J. , Pratt J. , 2007. The epic project for preventing healthcare associated infections. Journal Hospital Infection. 93(5), pp. 47-82. McGuckin, M. , 2004. Evaluation of a patient education model for increasing hand hygiene compliance in an inpatient rehabilitation unit. American Journal of Infection  Control, 32(4) pp. 235-238. National Audit Of? ce, 2006. The Provision of out of hours care in England. [online] Available at: http://www. nao. org. uk/publications/0506/out-of-hours_care_in_england. aspx [Accessed on 25 March 2012] National Audit Office, 2008. Reducing Healthcare Associated Infections in Hospitals in England. [online] Available at: www. nao. org. uk/idoc. ashx [Accessed 25 April 2012] National Audit Office, 2011. National Audit Office Annual Report for 2011. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2012]. Nicolle, C. 2008, Strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in acute care hospitals, [e-journal] 30(4), Available through: Medline, [Accessed 29 April 2012]. National Health Service, 2004. NHS Professionals Infection Control Policy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 may 2012]. National Health Service, 2006. Healthcare-Associated Infections. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2012]. National Hand Hyg iene NHS Campaign, 2007. Compliance with Hand hygiene 2nd Audit. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 May 2012]. 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Oxford: Blackwell publiching Ltd. Pellowe , C. , 2009. Infection Prevention Guidelines – Best Practice. London: Blackwell publishing ltd. Perry, C. , 2007. Infection Prevention Control. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Pessoa, L. , Silva E. , 2004. Dynamics of bacterial hand contamination during routine neonatal care. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 25(3) pp. 187-188. Pittet D. , 2002, Glove use and hand hygiene. Nursing Times, 103(38), pp. 46–48. Quan, K. , 2006. The everything new nurse. Massachusetts: Adams Media Rosenthal, D. , 2005. Reduction in nosocomial infection with improved hand hygiene in intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in Argentina. American Journal of Infection Control, 33(7), pp. 392-397. Royal College of Nursing, 2008. Infection Prevention and Control, [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 April 2012]. Royal College of Nursing, 2011. Essential Practice for Infection Prevention and Control. Available at: [Accessed 5 May 2012]. The Health Protection Scotland, 2009. Reports on emerging infections and other incidents of public health importance. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 April 2012]. The Kings Fund 2012. Healthcare-Associated Infections. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 23 March 2012]. Trick, E. , 2003 Impact of ring wearing on hand contamination and comparison of hand hygiene agents in a hospital. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 36 (1), pp. 1383-1390. Wendt, C. ,2004. Differences in hand hygiene behaviour related to the contamination risk of healthcare activities in different groups of healthcare workers. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 25(3), pp 203-206. Words= 3998 How to cite A Discussion of Control Infection in Healthcare, Papers

Asia Pacific Business Perspective for Foreign Direct Investment

Question: Write about theAsia Pacific Business Perspective for Foreign Direct Investment. Answer: In terms of growth in foreign direct investment (FDI), Bangladesh can be termed as one of the top countries among the South Asian economies. In 2015, Bangladesh economy witnessed a record growth of FDI reaching to a figure $2.3 billion (Ovi, 2016). Precisely, political stability in Bangladesh contributed the most for high growth of FDI. Furthermore, driven by the higher percentage of return on investment and low risk of investment are other reasons behind such inflow of FDI in the country (Ovi, 2017). According to the reports, the FDI inflows in the South Asian countries increased by 22 percent to $50 billion in 2015 out of which Bangladesh received $2.23 billion investment. Invariably, labour-intensive production industry in Bangladesh has been majorly benefited as the FDI inflows in the country increased by 44 percent in compared to $1.55 billion in 2014. In South Asia, Bangladesh is the second largest FDI recipient after India. Notably, India received $44 billion FDI inflows in 20 15 (Ovi, 2016). The World Investment Report 2016 has confirmed how Bangladesh economy is becoming one of the leading emerging markets in the South Asia. In the developing Asian markets, Bangladesh has left Pakistan and Sri Lanka behind in terms of receiving FDI inflows as both the economies have recorded a decline in FDI inflows worth $865 million and $ 681 million respectively. In terms of international as well as Asia Pacific business perspective, the swing of FDI inflows towards the South Asian countries can be noted from the study (Bdnews24.com, 2017). Evidently, improvement in infrastructure in the energy and power sector in Bangladesh has drawn highest FDI worth $574 million. Besides, strong FDI inflows in the Asian markets have been a blessing for manufacturing exports as well. According to the reports, 5 manufacturing exporters in Asia have recorded a growth of as high as 18 percent growth in foreign direct investment inflow (Ovi, 2016). In the meanwhile, the increased inflows of FDI in emer ging Asian economies have signalled for the long-term growth of several industries (Samakal, 2017). The record number of FDI inflows in Bangladesh has been a positive sign for the economy itself. Due to FDI surge, manufacturing industry, oil, gas, and power generating industry, and other leading industries operating in the country can register substantial growth over the next few years (Rahman, 2016). Also, infrastructural development will create a number of private sector jobs in the economy. Therefore, the social position, as well as income status of the citizens of the country, will be enhanced. Apart from the social up-gradation, the political relation of the country with other Asian countries can be improved. However, the shift of FDIs in the emerging Asian market can create business challenges for developed nations such as the US and Australia (Faruk, 2015). On the other hand, sluggish growth in demand in the commodity exporting economies such as Australia will face the major challenge as FDI inflows are shifting towards the South Asian countries. In the meanwhile, the improv ed economic status of emerging countries will increase cross-border mergers and acquisitions (MA) influencing international investment policies. With rising FDI in Bangladesh, the international trade relation of the economy has developed in the recent years. According to Kabir (2016), the international trade relationship of Bangladesh has gradually improved in the last few years. Currently, textile and clothing has been a major exporting sector of the nation. Bangladesh has developed its relationship with China, Malaysia and India with its new international trade policies (Rahman, 2016). The subsidies and better opportunities provided to the international investors in terms of improved international trade policy has been the key factor leading to the increasing FDI in the nation. According to Ovi (2016), the growth of FDI in the Asian countries will lead to economic growth of the nations. For instance, the 44 percent increment in FDI in Bangladesh has boosted its textile, manufacturing, telecommunication, and gas and oil industry (Faruk, 2015). Furthermore, the increment in FDI will lead to improvement in international trade that will help the economy to develop its infrastructure and financial position. Furthermore, an increment in the GDP annual growth rate can be evident in the last three years from 6.06 percent to 7.11 percent. A figure has been presented herein below for further reference: Figure: GDP annual growth Rate (Bangladesh) Source: (Tradingeconomics.com, 2017) Additionally, the FDI has promoted job opportunities in the nation resulting in a decrease in the unemployment rate of the economy. For instance, it can be seen that the unemployment rate in the Bangladesh has reduced to around 4.1 percent in 2015. However, the increment in FDI in the South Asian Countries or developing nations has directly impacted the FDI in developed nations like Australia and the United States (Doytch, 2015). The primary reason for increment in the FDI in the developing nations as compared to developed nations is the potential growth opportunities in the emerging economies and saturation of market in the developed countries. Furthermore, it is important to note that the Bangladesh Government has recently made changes in the Import and Export policies. For instance, Commerce Minister of Bangladesh Tofail Ahmed has asked to reduce the tax at source on exports for garment industry which is the primary foreign revenue earning sector for the economy (The Daily Star, 2015). According to the budget Speech by Ama Muhith (Finance Minister), the Bangladesh government has increased the tax at source for the export of garments from 0.3 percent to 1 percent in 2015-16 (The Daily Star, 2015). Hence, to improve the international trade policy and seek growth in the FDI, the nation must focus on reducing the export tax. Additionally, necessary changes must be made in the import taxes to promote growth of business in the domestic market. On the basis of the above analysis, the growth opportunities in the developing nations of South Asia have attracted Foreign Direct Investment in the economies. According to the current scenario, Bangladesh has witnessed the highest growth in the FDI due to its improving economic status and developing international trade policies. However, the FDI is the global economy is expected to reduce in 2017 due to certain economic uncertainties, but according to the economic forecast the investment will regain its growth in 2018. Hence, Bangladesh can attract higher FDI in the future by further improving its international trade policy and stabilising its economic growth. References Bdnews24.com. (2017).Foreign direct investment rises in Bangladesh. [online] Available at: https://bdnews24.com/business/2017/07/11/foreign-direct-investment-rises-in-bangladesh [Accessed Aug. 2017]. Doytch, N. (2015). Sectoral FDI cycles in South and East Asia.Journal of Asian Economics, 36, pp.24-33. Faruk, M. (2015). The Effect of FDI to Accelerate the Economic Growth of Bangladesh and Some Problems Prospects of FDI.Asian Business Review, 2(2), p.37. Kabir, M. (2016). Expanding the Bangladesh-China trade frontier. [online] The Daily Star. Available at: https://www.thedailystar.net/op-ed/politics/expanding-the-bangladesh-china-trade-frontier-1296583 [Accessed Aug. 2017]. Ovi, I. (2016).FDI to Bangladesh crosses $2bn mark. [online] Archive.dhakatribune.com. Available at: https://archive.dhakatribune.com/business/2016/jun/23/fdi-bangladesh-crosses-2bn-mark [Accessed Aug. 2017]. Ovi, I. (2017).UN: FDI inflow into Bangladesh rises 4.38% in 2016. [online] Dhaka Tribune. Available at: https://www.dhakatribune.com/business/2017/06/09/un-fdi-inflow-bangladesh-rises-4-38-2016/ [Accessed Aug. 2017]. Rahman, M. (2016).Record $2.2b FDI came last year. [online] The Daily Star. Available at: https://www.thedailystar.net/backpage/record-22b-fdi-came-last-year-1243486 [Accessed Aug. 2017]. Samakal. (2017).FDI to Bangladesh crosses $2bn mark. [online] Available at: https://www.samakal.net/2016/06/24/6761 [Accessed Aug. 2017]. The Daily Star. (2017). Reduce tax on garment exports: Tofail. [online] Available at: https://www.thedailystar.net/business/reduce-tax-garment-exports-tofail-104341 [Accessed Aug. 2017]. Tradingeconomics.com. (2017). Bangladesh GDP Annual Growth Rate | 1994-2017 | Data | Chart | Calendar. [online] Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/bangladesh/gdp-growth-annual [Accessed Aug. 2017].a

Friday, April 24, 2020

Types of learning styles Essays - Education, Educational Psychology

Types of learning styles By: Trevor Pool Visual learners Visual learners learn through seeing. This means when you have to teach through the eyes. Visual learners learn best from diagrams, pictures, videos, and notes. They have a hard time absorbing information through speeches or long discussions. Auditory learners Auditory learners learn from listening. They learn best from speeches and discussions. An auditory learner might need to read softly to learn where as a visual learner does not. Tactile learner Tactile learners learn from interacting with objects. The more they touch, move, do the more that they learn. They are the type of people that like to do hands on learning. Visual intelligence Visual intelligence is how good your ability is to understand graphs, charts, and videos. Verbal intelligence Verbal intelligence is the ability to comprehend speeches and directions. If your verbal intelligence is high then your skills can be writing speaking and much more. Logical intelligence Logical intelligence refers to be able to use math reasoning or logical numbers in order to find a solution to any given problem. The most famous logical thinker is bill gates the creator of windows. Bodily intelligence Bodily itelligence refers to the ability to comprehend bodily movements skillfully. These movement can be used in construction, music, and gymnastics. Musical intelligence Musical intelligence refers to the ability to think with your ears. This can include many music careers such as DJ, songwriter, and singing.